综述了轻水堆 (LWR) 核电站焊接结构材料环境促进开裂 (EAC) 的研究现状，分析了环境、材料、应力等相关影响因素，讨论了几种主要高温高压水EAC机理及考虑EAC效应的设计模型，最后指出了核电焊接结构材料EAC研究面临的问题及进一步的研究方向。
The present state of the environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) of the welded structural metallic materials for light water reactor (LWR) nuclear power plants was reviewed. Three factors affecting the EAC of the welded metallic materials were taken into account, including corrosive environments, susceptible materials and stresses. Several EAC mechanisms and EAC involved design models are discussed. The coming possible research topics and directions in this area are also proposed.
Alternate immersion and dry test, neutral salt spray test and electrochemical measurement were employed to investigate the weather-resistant performance of the imported S355J2W steel for CRH3 EMU (electric multiple unit) frame and SMA490BW steel for CRH2 EMU frame, respectively. The domestic Q235 steel was selected as the reference in the study. The results showed that the weather-resistant behavior of S355J2W and SMA490BW steel was different in the three corrosion tests. The corrosion rate of SMA490BW in alternate immersion and dry test was lower than that of S355J2W steel due to its higher content of Cu and Cr. While the S355J2W steel exhibited the better corrosion properties in neutral NaCl solution, which indicated that the steel is much more suitable for the application in coastal environment.
分别采用恒电流充电法和小幅三角波法监测Q235钢在海水中的腐蚀情况。结果表明，恒电流充电法和小幅三角波法能够较好地监测其在海水中的腐蚀情况；恒电流充电法推荐采用阴极极化，外加恒电流-3或-5 μA/cm2，极化时间1 min；小幅三角波法推荐采用阴极极化，扫描速率0.1或0.2 mV/s。
In order to develop a simple, fast, and reliable technology for corrosion monitoring for metallic materials in marine environment, the reliability of two electrochemical methods, constant current charging method and slightly triangular wave methodwere comparatively examined for the corrosion process of Q235 carbon steel in seawater. The results indicate that the two methods can monitor the corrosion of carbon steel in seawater well; cathodic polarization is recommended for constant current charging method, and the plused constant current density is -3 or -5 μA/cm2; cathodic polarization is recommended for slightly triangular wave method, and the scan rate is 0.1 or 0.2 mV/s.
通过采用霉菌实验、扫描电子显微镜 (SEM)、原子力显微镜 (AFM)、电化学阻抗谱 (EIS) 等方法与手段研究了霉菌侵蚀对A04-60氨基漆表面微观形貌、防护性能等的影响，鉴定了侵蚀菌种。结果表明，导致A04-60氨基漆变质的主要因素是黑曲霉，霉菌生长提高了涂层表面粗糙度，表面缺陷不断扩大和深入，使得涂层的阻抗值和防护性能下降。
The effect of erosion fungus on surface morphology and protective performance of A04-60 amino paint was studied by using fungus test, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM) and electrochemical imepdance spectroscopy (EIS). Results show that deterioration of A04-60 amino paint is mainly caused by Aspergillus niger strains, due to the action of which the surface of the coating became rougher, surface defects on the surface were constantly expanded and deepen, therefore the impedance and protectiveness of the A04-60 amino paint decresed.
研究了基于Al-5Zn-0.02In-1Mg-0.05Ti为阳极材料的铝空气电池在0.6 mol/L NaCl溶液中的放电性能，测试了纯Al、纯Zn及Al-5Zn-0.02In-1Mg-0.05Ti阳极材料的自腐蚀速率、动电位极化曲线及电化学阻抗谱 (EIS)，利用扫描电镜 (SEM) 观察了3种材料放电后的腐蚀形貌。结果表明，作为空气电池阳极材料，与纯Al、纯Zn相比，Al-5Zn-0.02In-1Mg-0.05Ti阳极合金能提供更高的工作电势、阳极利用率和电容量。3种材料的自腐蚀速率依次为：Al＜Al-5Zn-0.02In-1Mg-0.05Ti＜Zn。SEM和EIS结果表明，Al-5Zn-0.02In-1Mg-0.05Ti合金放电后的表面均匀分布着小而浅的腐蚀坑，使合金在放电过程中保持高的活性。
Air batteries consisted of pure Al, pure Zn and Al-5Zn-0.02In-1Mg-0.05Ti as anode respectively and with 0.6 mol/L NaCl solution as electrolyte were prepared and then their performance was comparatively evaluated by discharge test. Whilst the corrosion behavior of pure Al, pure Zn and Al-5Zn-0.02In-1Mg-0.05Ti was studied by measurements of free-corrosion potential and corrosion rate, potentiodynamic polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The characteristics of Al-5Zn-0.02In-1Mg-0.05Ti alloy after discharge were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that the air battery based on Al-5Zn-0.02In-1Mg-0.05Ti alloy offers higher operating voltage, anodic utilization efficiency and electric capacity rather than those with Al and Zn. The free-corrosion rates of the three materials can be ranked as Al＜Al-5Zn-0.02In-1Mg-0.05Ti＜Zn. SEM and EIS results show that small and shallow pits distribute uniformly on the discharged surface of Al-5Zn-0.02In-1Mg-0.05Ti alloy, and thus the alloy could keep high discharge activity during discharge.
采用静态失重法、电化学方法和扫描电镜等方法，研究了一种双子表面活性剂 (DBA2-12) 对N80钢在盐酸介质中的吸附缓蚀性能。结果表明，DBA2-12对N80钢在1 mol/L的盐酸溶液中具有较好的缓蚀性能。随着缓蚀剂浓度的增加，缓蚀率增大；随着实验温度升高，缓蚀率减小。该缓蚀剂在N80钢表面的吸附遵循Langmuir吸附等温式，是一种混合抑制型缓蚀剂。
The corrosion inhibition of Gemini surfactant (DBA2-12) for N80 steel in 1 mol/L HCl was investigated using mass loss methods, electrochemical methods and scanning electron microscopic methods. It was found that DBA2-12 exhibited good corrosion inhibition performance. Mass loss method reveals that the inhibition efficiency increases with the increase in concentration of DBA2-12, while decreases with the increase in temperature of acid medium. The adsorption of DBA2-12 on the metal surface has been found to obey Langmuir isotherm. Potentiodynamic polarization studies clearly suggest that DBA2-12 acts as mixed-type inhibitor, which can be adsorbed on N80 steel surface, leading to the formation of a protective film to decrease the corrosion rate.Key words: gemini surfactant, corrosion inhibitor, electrochemical, N80 steel, Langmuirisotherm
采用等离子喷涂法在普通铸铁基体上制备了WC/Co涂层，通过扫描电镜 (SEM)，能谱分析 (EDS) 和X射线衍射 (XRD) 等手段对WC/Co涂层微观组织与结构进行了观察和表征。对WC/Co涂层进行中性盐雾腐蚀实验，分析了表面组织形貌以及腐蚀产物成份，研究了WC/Co涂层的盐雾腐蚀类型，并对其抗盐雾腐蚀机理进行了探讨。结果表明，等离子喷涂制备的WC/Co涂层物相主要以W2C和C相为主，盐雾腐蚀后其主要成份没有发生变化；铸铁表面腐蚀严重，其腐蚀类型以全面腐蚀和应力腐蚀破裂为主；WC/Co涂层表面腐蚀比较轻微，其腐蚀类型以选择性腐蚀为主，应力腐蚀破裂为辅；WC/Co涂层抗腐蚀性能远优于铸铁基体，有效地提高了喷涂后铸铁基体的抗盐雾腐蚀性能。
A WC/Co coating was prepared on cast iron by plasma spraying, and the corrosion behavior of which was examined by neutral salt spray test. The surface morphology, microstructure and composition of the WC/Co coating were characterized with SEM, EDS and XRD before and after corrosion test. The results show that WC/Co coatingconsisted mainly of W2C and C, and after salt spray corrosion the phase constituent of the coating is not changed. During salt spay test, cast iron is seriously corroded with the type of mainly general corrosion and stress corrosion, while the WC/Co coating is slightly corrodedwith the type of mainlyselective corrosion and partially stress corrosion. The corrosion resistance of WC/Co coating is far superior to cast iron, thus can enhance the resistance of cast iron to salt spray corrosion effectively.
研制了一种可用于氧化铟锡 (ITO) 透明电极的刻蚀液，研究了其刻蚀效果，并推断刻蚀机理。选用不同pH值的FeCl3水溶液作为刻蚀功能成分，将PEG10000作为介质，以气相SiO2为触变剂制备刻蚀液，用丝网印刷法对ITO电极进行刻蚀实验，研究了不同刻蚀条件对刻蚀效果及ITO电极体积电阻率的影响。结果表明，pH值为1.67时，于80 ℃，90 min后ITO薄膜的刻蚀效果最优。通过EDS表征ITO电极元素的变化，用原子力显微镜 (AFM) 观察电极微观形貌的变化。
A novel etching process of indium tin oxide (ITO) transparent electrode and its etching effect were reported. Etching liquid was made up of FeCl3 solution with various pH as functional component, PEG10000 as medium, and gas phase SiO2 as thixotropic agent. ITO etching experiments were carried out by screen printing method. The influence of different etching conditions on ITO electrode volume resistivity was studied. The result shows that the optimal etching condition is etching at 80 ℃ for 90 min in a solution with pH 1.67. The change of composition and morphology of ITO electrode was characterized by EDS and AFM respectively.
根据GB/T 4334-2008，通过H2SO4-CuSO4腐蚀法对304H不锈钢进行晶间腐蚀实验，观察其在不同温度、时间下的敏化情况，利用光学显微镜和扫描电镜研究析出相情况，应用分析测量图像软件测量晶界宽度，根据Avrami经验方程，分析304H不锈钢的时效析出动力学。结果表明：在600~750 ℃温度区间，敏化较严重，尤其650 ℃时效时，敏化最严重。304H不锈钢高温析出相变化规律为：温度一定时，随着时间的延长，晶界碳化物析出增加，尺寸增大；时间一定，温度升高时，晶界碳化物析出先增加，当温度达到850 ℃时，碳化物析出减少。650 ℃等温析出动力学曲线以及时效10 h的晶界宽度变化，均反映了这种变化。
Intergranular corrosion behavior of 304H stainless steel in H2SO4-CuSO4 solution was examined according to GB/T 4334-2008 so that to reveal the sensitization of the steel with test temperature and time. OM, SEM and EDS techniques were adopted to observe the carbides precipitation at grain-boundary and analysis measurement image software was applied to measure the width of grain-boundary. The aging precipitation kinetics was analyzed according to Avrami empirical equation. It was found that specimens aged at temperature range 600 to 750 ℃ were sensitized obviously and 650 ℃ was the most sensitive temperature. The quantity and size of precipitated carbides were both increased with increasing aging time at a given temperature, While for a given aging time the precipitated carbides at grain-boundaries increased first and then decreased until 850 ℃. The same regulation could be verified with the isothermal precipitation kinetics curve and the change of grain-boundary width at 650 ℃ for 10 h aging treatment.
The corrosion behavior of 254SMo and TP317L stainless steels in the primary and secondary water of papermaking intermediate waters was investigated with electrochemical tests and electron-microscope (EM) technique. This aims to provide the basis for material selection of the condenser of a new 600 MW heating unit. The results show that Cl- promoted the pitting corrosion of 254SMo and TP317L in papermaking intermediate waters; under the same water quality condition, the corrosion resistance of TP317L in primary water is better than that in secondary water, 254SMo just the reverse. Whether in primary water or secondary water, 254SMo shows much excellent resistance to pitting corrosion rather than TP317L.
针对包头某热电厂供热系统存在的软化水腐蚀问题进行了分析研究。结果表明，管道内壁的腐蚀为氧腐蚀，主要影响因素为DO (溶解氧)，其次为pH值；为了解决腐蚀问题，提出了一种以异抗坏血酸钠为主要成分的复合缓蚀剂，复合配方中的各组分之间存在着协同作用，能很好地抑制具有较强腐蚀性软化水中设备的腐蚀。软化水水质pH值为10并且药剂浓度为150 mg/L时，碳钢的腐蚀率仅为0.0303 mm/a。
The corrosion of the hot water supply system in a thermal power plant in Baotou was analyzed.Results showed that corrosion of the inner surface of pipe was oxygen corrosion，the main influencing factor were DO (dissolved oxygen) and pH value.In order to solve the corrosion problem, a new compound corrosion inhibitor with Sodium erythorbate as the main component was proposed. Due to synergistic effect exists amongthe components of the compound ihibitor， therefore, the inhibitor can effectively enhance the resistance of the steel pipesto the corrosive softened waterin the system. The corrosion rate of carbon steel may be lowered to only 0.0303 mm/a with a dose of 150 mg/L inhibitor for the soften water with pH 10.
综述了J55油套管钢腐蚀的研究进展，提供了影响J55油套管钢腐蚀的关键因素。研究发现，在温度、CO2分压、流速、矿化度、Cl-、HCO3-和时间条件下J55油套管钢的腐蚀速率均呈现极值，酸化液、硫酸盐还原菌 (SRB) 以及拉应力加速腐蚀，而微量H2S、pH值、嗜油好氧细菌、压和弯曲应力减缓腐蚀；腐蚀产物膜的成分与结构因腐蚀环境不同而各异，致密、结合力强的膜才能抑制腐蚀；原油、H2S和O2的加入改变反应的传质过程和界面状态。
通过对杂散电流腐蚀危害的分析以及国内外相关杂散电流检测仪器设备的性能比较, 重点介绍了SCM-4200交直流杂散电流的设计思路、性能指标、实现方法、应用领域等问题。依据杂散电流检测的相关标准，对仪器各检测电路单元分别进行了优化和完善, 使检测系统结构更加紧凑、测量结果更精确, 抗干扰能力更强。